Archive for January 21st, 2013

Nerve Impulse Conduction-Class-XI

Impulse Conduction:-
Neurons has many characters –
(i) Irretability and Conductivity:-
(ii) Stimulus:- It is change in external or internal environment which excite any nerve or muscle or complete organism is called stimulus.
– Threshold stimulus (Adequate stimulus) : It is able to excite tissue or muscle.
– Subthreshold stimulus (Inadequate stimulus) :

(iii) Nerve impulse:- All the physical and chemical changes occur in a neuron in response to stimulus is called nerve impulse.
– The conduction of nerve impulse occur only in single direction if the impulse is generated in the middle of axon then it is transmitted in both side.
(iv) All or none:-
(v) Refractory period:-
(vi) Summation:-
Mechanism of Conduction of Nerve Impulse:-

– The axoplasm is rich in K+ and PO4–3 ions (The Axoplasm has 40 times more K+ than ECF).
While the ECF (tissue fluid) is rich in Na+ and Cl– (The ECF has 10 to 12 times more Na+ than axoplasm).
Polarization:-
– In normal stage (resting stage) the permeability of axolemma is very less for Na+ and high for K+ so K+ diffuse out in ECF. Thus in resting stage cation increases in ECF while anion increases in axoplasm.

– This distribution of ions on axolemma generates a potential difference of –70 mV which is called resting membrane potential and this stage of axon is called polarisation stage.
– This resting membrane potential is maintained by active transport and passive diffusion. For this sodium potassium pump become active which transport ions against electro-chemical gradient. During this 1ATP molecule transport 3 Na+ from axoplasm to ECF and 2 K+ from ECF to axoplasm
– At the some time some inorganic ion also transport through axolemma by passive diffusion
Depolarization or action membrane potential/Generation of Nerve Impulse –
– According to Hozkins and Huxley the stimulus increases permeability of axolemma for Na+ and decreases permeability for K+. So the outflux of K+ stops and influx of Na+ starts. Thus the cation increases in axoplasm and anion increases in ECF. It is called Depolarization
– If the stimulus is threshold i.e. it is able to decrease the potential difference from –70 mV to –60 mV then all the protein channels for Na+ opens and depolarisation occur more rapidly. So potential difffrence become +35 mV which is called action Membrane potential. This stage represents nerve impulse.
– In axon this action membrane potential remains for 1 milli second only. Now the sodium channels closes and potassium channel open which show repolarisaiton.
– During this all potassium channel open simultaneously so potassium outflux occur more rapidly and +35 mV reaches to –85 or –90 mV or – 95 mV. It is the stage of Hyperpolarisation
– Now the resting membrane potential is establishes which takes 1 or 2 second. During this new impulse is not generated at this point. It is called Refactory period. It is useful for the transmission of impulse only in one direction i.e. cyton to axon.
Refractory period µ 1/Diamater of neuron
Note– The conduction of nerve impulse is electro-chemical process i.e. the cation and anion of two adjacent part in an axon attract each other which establishes local electrical circuits in two parts
of axon. So this new part of axon stimulated to generate action
membrane potential. This process is continued up to axon ending.
Note – According to Luckas the conduction of nerve impulse follows the phenomenon of all or none.
Note– The rate of impulse conduction depends on diameter of axon. It is higher in thick axon.
Note– The rate of impulse transmission in mammals is 100 -130 meter/sec.
Note– Velocity of nerve impulse µ diamater of neuron
Saltatory Impulse Conduction
– Myelinated nerve fibres has a myelin sheath which is electrical insulating but it is absent in node of ranvier.
– So node of ranvier is not electrical insulated thus in myelinated fibres impulse is generated only on nodes which is called saltatory impulse conduction.
– It increases speed of impulse conduction by 50 times than non myelinated fibres.

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Nervous System- Class-XI

Nervous System

– It is Ectodermal in origin.
– It is the first system developed during embryogenesis.
– The structural and functional unit of nervous system is neuron or nerve cell. Human body contain 30 billion neurons.
– There are two systems which coordinate and regulate various organs of our body, these are
(i) Endocrine System (ii) Nervous System
– Endocrine system act as slow speed service. It secrete some chemical messangers (hormones) to regulate various body activities.
Nervous System –
– It act as high speed service or no delay service. It include components of three categories
Sensory organs (receptors), Communication system and Effectors (muscles or gland)
– The communication system involve central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and autonomous nervous system.
General Functions of Nervous System
– It receive the changes of external environment and respond them according past experience.
– It coordinates between various organs of body.
– It transmitt impulse to various parts.
– It establish the homeostasis in internal environment of body.
Nervous Tissue

Neurons Neuroglial cells

Neurons –
– It is largest cell of body. Each neuron has two parts-
1. Cell body or Cyton or Perikaryon or Soma
2. Cell processes : Dendrone and Axon
(1) Cell body
– It has a round and large nucleus. It also contain numerous neurofibrils, mitochondria, golgi complex and Nissl’s granules, ER, ribosomes and fat droplets.
– Nissl’s granules are also called Trigroid which are made up of RER + ribosome and they synthesise protein.
– Cytoplasm contain some small fibrills which are called neurofibrills. They helps in conduction inside cyton
– Neuron lacks centriole (Present in Neuroblast cells ) so they don’t divide after Embryonic Development. These cells remain in interphase throughout life.
– They have some power of regeneration.
– The cyton are generally found in Grey Matter of brain.

Note– The cyton of cerebellum are flask shaped which are called Purkinje cells
(2) Cell Processes:-
– Neuron cell give rise to various processes called Neurites which are of two types –
(i) Dendrites or Dendron
(ii) Axon or Axis cylinder
– Dendrites are small, numerous and conical shaped. They are thick at base and thin at apex. They contain all cell organelles along with Neurofibrils and Nissl’s granules.
– Dendrites tansmitt impulses from sensory cells or other neurons to the cyton so they are also called Afferent processes
– Axon are always one, long and of similar thickness.
– The terminal end of axon is branched having button shaped or knobbed structures called telodendria
– Telodendria is rich in mitochondria, which synthesise acetyl choline with the help of choline acetyl transferase.
– Axon has mitochondria and neurofibrills but lacks Nissl’s granules.
– Axon carry impulses away from cyton (towards other neuron or Effector organs). So axon is also called Efferent processes
– The cytoplasm of axon is called Axoplasm and its covering is called Axolemma.
– Axon is functional part of nerve cell.
Note– The nerve cell of female has bar body in its nucleus.

Nerve Fibre –
– Axon is surrounded by Neurilemma. The axon along with
Neurilemma is called Nerve fibre.
– The neurilemma is secreted by Schwann cells (multinucleated). This cell appear as a projection on this neurilemma.
– Around the neurilemma there is a thin basement membrane and outer to basement membrane there is a covering of connective tissue called Henle’s key Retzius Sheath.
– In long axon each Schwann cell coil around it to form another covering called Myelin sheath (medullary sheath).
– The myelin sheath is not a continuous covering. It is absent in nodes of Ranvier. These nodes are present at 1 mm distance.
– Myelin sheath lacks cytoplasm. It is made up of phospholipid and proteins of plasma membrane. The fat (lipid) is also called Myelin so the term is given Myelin sheath
Functions of Myelin Sheath
3It provides electrical insulation.
3It speed up impulse transmission (50 times).
3It helps in regeneration of neurone.
– Myelin sheath is not found in all neurons. The neuron having myelin sheath are called Myelinated (Medullated) neurone while the neuron lacking myelin sheath are called Non myelinated (non medullated)

Note– In CNS all neuron have Neurilemma but their neurelimma is not made up of schwann cells, it is formed by Neuroglial cells or Oligodendrocytes. These neuron also lack Henle’s sheath.
Note– Formation of myelin sheath is called myelinogenesis. In PNS it is carried out by schwann cells while in CNS it is carried out by oligodendrocytes (neuroglia).
Note– Myelin sheath act as heat insulator and inhibits the leakage of ions. It also conserve energy of axon.

स्वामी विवेकानंद

स्वामी विवेकानंद

महत्त्वपूर्ण तिथियाँ

12 जनवरी, 1863 — कलकत्ता में जन्म

1879 — प्रेसीडेंसी कॉलेज में प्रवेश

1880 — जनरल असेम्बली इंस्टीट्यूशन में प्रवेश

नवंबर 1881 — रामकृष्ण परमहंस से प्रथम भेंट

1882-86 — रामकृष्ण परमहंस से सम्बद्ध

1884 — स्नातक परीक्षा उत्तीर्ण; पिता का स्वर्गवास

1885 — रामकृष्ण परमहंस की अन्तिम बीमारी

16 अगस्त, 1886 — रामकृष्ण परमहंस का निधन

1886 — वराहनगर मठ की स्थापना

जनवरी 1887 — वराह नगर मठ में संन्यास की औपचारिक प्रतिज्ञा

1890-93 — परिव्राजक के रूप में भारत-भ्रमण

25 दिसंबर, 1892 — कन्याकुमारी में

13 फरवरी, 1893 — प्रथम सार्वजनिक व्याख्यान सिकन्दराबाद में

31 मई, 1893 — बम्बई से अमरीका रवाना

25 जुलाई, 1893 — वैंकूवर, कनाडा पहुँचे

30 जुलाई, 1893 — शिकागो आगमन

अगस्त 1893 — हार्वर्ड विश्वविद्यालय के प्रो० जॉन राइट से भेंट

11 सितम्बर, 1893 — विश्व धर्म सम्मेलन, शिकागो में प्रथम व्याख्यान

27 सितम्बर, 1893 — विश्व धर्म सम्मेलन, शिकागो में अन्तिम व्याख्यान

16 मई, 1894 — हार्वर्ड विश्वविद्यालय में संभाषण

नवंबर 1894 — न्यूयॉर्क में वेदान्त समिति की स्थापना

जनवरी 1895 — न्यूयॉर्क में धार्मिक कक्षाओं का संचालन आरम्भ

अगस्त 1895 — पेरिस में

अक्तूबर 1895 — लन्दन में व्याख्यान

6 दिसंबर, 1895 — वापस न्यूयॉर्क

22-25 मार्च, 1896 — फिर लन्दन

मई-जुलाई 1896 — हार्वर्ड विश्वविद्यालय में व्याख्यान

15 अप्रैल, 1896 — वापस लन्दन

मई-जुलाई 1896 — लंदन में धार्मिक कक्षाएँ

28 मई, 1896 — ऑक्सफोर्ड में मैक्समूलर से भेंट

30 दिसम्बर, 1896 — नेपल्स से भारत की ओर रवाना

15 जनवरी, 1897 — कोलम्बो, श्रीलंका आगमन

6-15 फरवरी, 1897 — मद्रास में

19 फरवरी, 1897 — कलकत्ता आगमन

1 मई, 1897 — रामकृष्ण मिशन की स्थापना

मई-दिसम्बर 1897 — उत्तर भारत की यात्रा

जनवरी 1898 — कलकत्ता वापसी

19 मार्च, 1899 — मायावती में अद्वैत आश्रम की स्थापना

20 जून, 1899 — पश्चिमी देशों की दूसरी यात्रा

31 जुलाई, 1899 — न्यूयॉर्क आगमन

22 फरवरी, 1900 — सैन फ्रांसिस्को में वेदान्त समिति की स्थापना

जून 1900 — न्यूयॉर्क में अन्तिम कक्षा

26 जुलाई, 1900 — योरोप रवाना

24 अक्तूबर, 1900 — विएना, हंगरी, कुस्तुनतुनिया, ग्रीस, मिस्र आदि देशों की यात्रा

26 नवम्बर, 1900 — भारत रवाना

9 दिसम्बर, 1900 — बेलूर मठ आगमन

जनवरी 1901 — मायावती की यात्रा

मार्च-मई 1901 — पूर्वी बंगाल और असम की तीर्थयात्रा

जनवरी-फरवरी 1902 — बोध गया और वाराणसी की यात्रा

मार्च 1902 — बेलूर मठ में वापसी

4 जुलाई, 1902 — महासमाधि

स्वामी विवेकानन्द (जन्म: १२ जनवरी,१८६३ – मृत्यु: ४ जुलाई,१९०२) वेदान्त के विख्यात और प्रभावशाली आध्यात्मिक गुरु थे। उनका वास्तविक नाम नरेन्द्र नाथ दत्त था। उन्होंने अमेरिका स्थित शिकागो में सन् १८९३ में आयोजित विश्व धर्म महासभा में भारत की ओर से सनातन धर्म का प्रतिनिधित्व किया था। भारत काआध्यात्मिकता से परिपूर्ण वेदान्त दर्शन अमेरिका और यूरोप के हर एक देश में स्वामी विवेकानन्द की वक्तृता के कारण ही पहुँचा। उन्होंने रामकृष्ण मिशन की स्थापना की थी जो आज भी अपना काम कर रहा है। वे रामकृष्ण परमहंस के सुयोग्य शिष्य थे। उन्हें प्रमुख रूप से उनके भाषण की शुरुआत “मेरे अमरीकी भाइयो एवं बहनों” के साथ करने के लिये जाना जाता है।[2] उनके संबोधन के इस प्रथम वाक्य ने सबका दिल जीत लिया था।

उन्तालीस वर्ष के संक्षिप्त जीवनकाल में स्वामी विवेकानन्द जो काम कर गये वे आने वाली अनेक शताब्दियों तक पीढ़ियों का मार्गदर्शन करते रहेंगे।

तीस वर्ष की आयु में स्वामी विवेकानन्द ने शिकागो, अमेरिका के विश्व धर्म सम्मेलन में हिंदू धर्म का प्रतिनिधित्व किया और उसे सार्वभौमिक पहचान दिलवायी। गुरुदेव रवीन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर ने एक बार कहा था-“यदि आप भारत को जानना चाहते हैं तो विवेकानन्द को पढ़िये। उनमें आप सब कुछ सकारात्मक ही पायेंगे, नकारात्मक कुछ भी नहीं।”

रोमां रोलां ने उनके बारे में कहा था-“उनके द्वितीय होने की कल्पना करना भी असम्भव है वे जहाँ भी गये, सर्वप्रथम ही रहे। हर कोई उनमें अपने नेता का दिग्दर्शन करता था। वे ईश्वर के प्रतिनिधि थे और सब पर प्रभुत्व प्राप्त कर लेना ही उनकी विशिष्टता थी। हिमालय प्रदेश में एक बार एक अनजान यात्री उन्हें देख ठिठक कर रुक गया और आश्चर्यपूर्वक चिल्ला उठा-‘शिव!’ यह ऐसा हुआ मानो उस व्यक्ति के आराध्य देव ने अपना नाम उनके माथे पर लिख दिया हो।”

वे केवल सन्त ही नहीं, एक महान देशभक्त, वक्ता, विचारक, लेखक और मानव-प्रेमी भी थे। अमेरिका से लौटकर उन्होंने देशवासियों का आह्वान करते हुए कहा था-“नया भारत निकल पड़े मोची की दुकान से, भड़भूँजे के भाड़ से, कारखाने से, हाट से, बाजार से; निकल पडे झाड़ियों, जंगलों, पहाड़ों, पर्वतों से।” और जनता ने स्वामीजी की पुकार का उत्तर दिया। वह गर्व के साथ निकल पड़ी। गान्धीजी को आजादी की लड़ाई में जो जन-समर्थन मिला, वह विवेकानन्द के आह्वान का ही फल था। इस प्रकार वे भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम के भी एक प्रमुख प्रेरणा-स्रोत बने। उनका विश्वास था कि पवित्र भारतवर्ष धर्म एवं दर्शन की पुण्यभूमि है। यहीं बड़े-बड़े महात्माओं व ऋषियों का जन्म हुआ, यही संन्यास एवं त्याग की भूमि है तथा यहीं-केवल यहीं-आदिकाल से लेकर आज तक मनुष्य के लिये जीवन के सर्वोच्च आदर्श एवं मुक्ति का द्वार खुला हुआ है। उनके कथन-“‘उठो, जागो, स्वयं जागकर औरों को जगाओ। अपने नर-जन्म को सफल करो और तब तक नहीं रुको जब तक लक्ष्य प्राप्त न हो जाये।”

उन्नीसवी सदी के अन्तिम वर्षों में लिया गया क्रान्तिकारी वेशधारी विवेकानन्द का एक दुर्लभ चित्र। यह चित्र देखकर उन्होंने कहा था-“यह चित्र तो डाकुओं के किसी सरदार जैसा लगता है।”[4]

उन्नीसवीं सदी के आखिरी वर्षोँ में विवेकानन्द लगभग सशस्त्र या हिंसक क्रान्ति के जरिये भी देश को आजाद करना चाहते थे। परन्तु उन्हें जल्द ही यह विश्वास हो गया था कि परिस्थितियाँ उन इरादों के लिये अभी परिपक्व नहीं हैं। इसके बाद ही विवेकानन्द ने ‘एकला चलो‘ की नीति का पालन करते हुए एक परिव्राजक के रूप में भारत और दुनिया को खंगाल डाला।

उन्होंने कहा था कि मुझे बहुत से युवा संन्यासी चाहिये जो भारत के ग्रामों में फैलकर देशवासियों की सेवा में खप जायें। उनका यह सपना पूरा नहीं हुआ। विवेकानन्द पुरोहितवाद, धार्मिक आडम्बरों, कठमुल्लापन और रूढ़ियों के सख्त खिलाफ थे। उन्होंने धर्म को मनुष्य की सेवा के केन्द्र में रखकर ही आध्यात्मिक चिंतन किया था। उनका हिन्दू धर्म अटपटा, लिजलिजा और वायवीय नहीं था। उन्होंने यह विद्रोही बयान दिया था कि इस देश के तैंतीस करोड़ भूखे, दरिद्र और कुपोषण के शिकार लोगों को देवी देवताओं की तरह मन्दिरों में स्थापित कर दिया जाये और मन्दिरों से देवी देवताओं की मूर्तियों को हटा दिया जाये।

उनका यह कालजयी आह्वान इक्कीसवीं सदी के पहले दशक के अन्त में एक बड़ा प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह खड़ा करता है। उनके इस आह्वान को सुनकर पूरे पुरोहित वर्ग की घिग्घी बँध गई थी। आज कोई दूसरा साधु तो क्या सरकारी मशीनरी भी किसी अवैध मन्दिर की मूर्ति को हटाने का जोखिम नहीं उठा सकती। विवेकानन्द के जीवन की अन्तर्लय यही थी कि वे इस बात से आश्वस्त थे कि धरती की गोद में यदि ऐसा कोई देश है जिसने मनुष्य की हर तरह की बेहतरी के लिए ईमानदार कोशिशें की हैं, तो वह भारत ही है।

उन्होंने पुरोहितवाद, ब्राह्मणवाद, धार्मिक कर्मकाण्ड और रूढ़ियों की खिल्ली भी उड़ायी और लगभग आक्रमणकारी भाषा में ऐसी विसंगतियों के खिलाफ युद्ध भी किया। उनकी दृष्टि में हिन्दू धर्म के सर्वश्रेष्ठ चिन्तकों के विचारों का निचोड़ पूरी दुनिया के लिए अब भी ईर्ष्या का विषय है। स्वामीजी ने संकेत दिया था कि विदेशों में भौतिक समृद्धि तो है और उसकी भारत को जरूरत भी है लेकिन हमें याचक नहीं बनना चाहिये। हमारे पास उससे ज्यादा बहुत कुछ है जो हम पश्चिम को दे सकते हैं और पश्चिम को उसकी बेसाख्ता जरूरत है।

यह विवेकानन्द का अपने देश की धरोहर के लिये दम्भ या बड़बोलापन नहीं था। यह एक वेदान्ती साधु की भारतीय सभ्यता और संस्कृति की तटस्थ, वस्तुपरक और मूल्यगत आलोचना थी। बीसवीं सदी के इतिहास ने बाद में उसी पर मुहर लगायी।

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

स्वामी विवेकानंद अमेरिका में भ्रमण कर रहे थे . एक जगह से गुजरते हुए उन्होंने पुल पर खड़े  कुछ लड़कों को नदी में तैर रहे अंडे के छिलकों पर बन्दूक से निशाना लगाते देखा . किसी भी लड़के का एक भी निशाना सही नहीं लग रहा था . तब उन्होंने ने एक लड़के से बन्दूक ली और खुद निशाना लगाने लगे . उन्होंने पहला निशाना लगाया और वो बिलकुल सही लगा ….. फिर एक के बाद एक उन्होंने कुल 12 निशाने लगाये और सभी बिलकुल सटीक लगे . ये देख लड़के दंग रह गए और उनसे पुछा , ” भला आप ये कैसे कर लेते हैं ?”

स्वामी जी बोले , “तुम जो भी कर रहे हो अपना पूरा दिमाग उसी एक काम में लगाओ. अगर तुम निशाना लगा रहे हो तो तम्हारा पूरा ध्यान सिर्फ अपने लक्ष्य पर होना चाहिए. तब तुम कभी चूकोगे नहीं . अगर तुम अपना पाठ पढ़ रहे हो तो सिर्फ पाठ के बारे में सोचो . मेरे देश में बच्चों को ये करना सिखाया जाता है. ”

Details of Swami Vivekananda for School Quiz

Swami Vivekananda (Bengali pronunciation:  Shāmi Bibekānando (help·info)): Bengali pronunciation: [ʃami bibekanɒnɖo]) (12 January 1863–4 July 1902), born Narendra Nath Datta[3] (Bengali pronunciation: [nɔrend̪ro nat̪ʰ d̪ɔt̪t̪o]), was an Indian Hindu monk. He was a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world[4] and was credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion in the late 19th century.[5] He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India and contributed to the notion of nationalism in colonial India.[6] He was the chief disciple of the 19th century saint Ramakrishna and the founder of the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission.[4] He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech beginning with “Sisters and Brothers of America,”[7] through which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago in 1893.

Born into an aristocratic Bengali family of Calcutta,[8] Vivekananda showed an inclination towards spirituality. He was influenced by his guru Ramakrishna from whom he learnt that all living beings were an embodiment of the divine self and hence, service to God could be rendered by service to mankind.[9] After the death of his guru, Vivekananda toured the Indian subcontinentextensively and acquired a first-hand knowledge of the conditions that prevailed in British India.[10] He later travelled to the United States to represent India as a delegate in the 1893 Parliament of World Religions. He conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of Hindu philosophy in the United States, England and Europe. In India, Vivekananda is regarded as a patriotic saint and his birthday is celebrated as the National Youth Day.[11]

Birth and childhood

 

Bhuvaneswari Devi (1841–1911).
“I am indebted to my mother for the efflorescence of my knowledge.”[12] – Swami Vivekananda

Vivekananda was born as Narendranath in Calcutta, the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti festival. He belonged to a traditional Bengali Kayastha (a caste of Hindus) family and was one of the nine siblings.[13] Narendra’s father Vishwanath Datta was an attorney of Calcutta High Court.[14] Narendra’s mother was a pious woman and a housewife. The progressive rational approach of his father and the religious temperament of his mother helped shape his thinking and personality.[15][16] Young Narendranath was fascinated by the wandering ascetics and monks.[16]

Narendra was an average student, but a voracious reader.[17] He was interested in a wide range of subjects such as philosophy, religion, history, the social sciences, arts, and literature.[18] He evinced interest in the Hindu scriptures such as the Vedas, the Upanishads, theBhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. He trained in Indian classical music,[19] and participated in physical exercise, sports, and organisational activities.[18] Narendra joined the Metropolitan Institution of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar in 1871 and studied there until 1877 when his family moved to Raipur.[20] The family returned to Calcutta two years later.

[edit]College and Brahmo Samaj

In 1879 after his family moved back to Calcutta, Narendra passed the entrance examination from the Presidency College. He subsequently studied western logic, western philosophy and history of European nations in the General Assembly’s Institution (now known as the Scottish Church College).[21][22] In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination and in 1884 he completed a Bachelor of Arts degree.[23][24]

Narendra studied the works of David HumeImmanuel KantJohann Gottlieb FichteBaruch SpinozaGeorg W. F. HegelArthur SchopenhauerAuguste ComteHerbert SpencerJohn Stuart Mill, and Charles Darwin.[25][26] Narendra became fascinated with theevolutionism of Herbert Spencer and had correspondence with him;[27][28] he translated Spencer’s book Education (1861) into Bengali. Alongside his study of Western philosophers, he was thoroughly acquainted with Indian Sanskrit scriptures and many Bengali works.[26] Dr. William Hastie, principal of General Assembly’s Institution, wrote, “Narendra is really a genius. I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German universities, among philosophical students.”[25] Some accounts regard Narendra as a srutidhara—a man with prodigious memory.[29][30][31]

Narendra became the member of a Freemason‘s lodge and of a breakaway faction of the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshub Chandra Sen.[22] His initial beliefs were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which included belief in a formless God and deprecation of the worship of idols.[32] Not satisfied with his knowledge of philosophy, he wondered if God and religion could be made a part of one’s growing experiences and deeply internalised. Narendra went about asking prominent residents of contemporary Calcutta whether they had come “face to face with God” but could not get answers which satisfied him.[33][34] His first introduction to the saint Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class in General Assembly’s Institution, when he heard Hastie lecturing on William Wordsworth‘s poem The Excursion.[35][36] While explaining the word “trance” in the poem, Hastie suggested his students to visit Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar to know the real meaning of trance. This prompted some of his students, including Narendra, to visit Ramakrishna.[22][37][38]

[edit]With Ramakrishna

death

On 4 July 1902, the day of his death, Vivekananda woke up very early in the morning, went to chapel and meditated for three hours. He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda, Sanskrit grammar, and yoga philosophy to pupils in the morning at Belur Math.[131][132] He discussed with colleagues a plan to start a Vedic college in the Ramakrishna Math, and carried out usual conversation. At seven p.m. he went into his room and asked not to be disturbed.[131] Vivekananda died at ten minutes past nine p.m. while he was meditating.[133] According to his disciples, Vivekananda attained Mahasamadhi.[134] Rupture of blood vessels in the brain was reported as a possible cause of the death.[135] His disciples believed that rupture was on account of Brahmarandhra —the aperture in the crown of the head —being pierced when he attainedMahasamadhi. Vivekananda had fulfilled his own prophecy of not living to be forty years old.[136] He was cremated on sandalwood funeral pyre on the bank of Ganga in Belur. On the other bank of the river, Ramakrishna had been  cremated sixteen years before.

Books

Vivekananda was a powerful orator and writer both in English and Bengali.[163] Majority of his published works were compiled from lectures given around the world. Vivekananda was a singer and a poet,[164] and composed many songs and poems including his favourite Kali the Mother. He blended humour in his teachings; his language was lucid. His Bengali writings stand testimony to the fact that he believed that words—spoken or written—should be for making things easier to understand rather than show off the speaker or writer’s knowledge

[edit]Books by Vivekananda

Published in his lifetime[165]

  • Karma Yoga (1896)
  • Raja Yoga (1896 [1899 edition])
  • Vedanta Philosophy: An address before the graduate philosophical society (1896)
  • Lectures from Colombo to Almora (1897)
  • Vedanta philosophy: lectures on  Jnana Yoga (1902)

Published posthumously

Here a list of selected books of Vivekananda published after his death (1902)[165]

  • Addresses on Bhakti Yoga
  • Bhakti Yoga
  • Complete works. Vol 5
  • The East and the West
  • Inspired Talks (1909)
  • Narada Bhakti Sutras – translation
  • Lectures from Colombo to Almora (1904)
  • Para Bhakti or Supreme Devotion
  • Practical Vedanta
  • Jnana Yoga
  • Raja Yoga (1920)
  • Speeches and writings of Swami Vivekananda; a comprehensive collection
  • Vivekavani (1986) – Telugu
  • Yoga (1987) – Telugu
  • name, Full name, First Name
  • “Vivekananda”
  • Born
  • 1863; January 1863; January 12th 1863; Indiathe United Kingdom; …
  • Died
  • ▶1902, July 1902, July 4th 1902, Indiathe world,  …
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  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda
  • Key Employee of
  • Ramakrishna Mission Home of Service
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  • male
  • Nationality
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  • Residence
  • Calcutta
  • Educated
  • University of CalcuttaPresidency College, KolkataScottish Church College, Calcutta
  • Age at Death
  • 39 years, 5 months and 22 days old
  • Class
  • personHindureligious leaderclergymanCapricorn person,  …
  • Did
  • die (July 4th 1902)
  • Has Visited
  • Indore (June 1892), AyodhyaRameswaramThrissurKhandwa (June 1892)
  • Went to
  • the United StatesIndiathe United KingdomParisChicago,  …
  • Born During
  • January 1st 1860, 00:00 – December 31st 1869, 23:59
  • Died During
  • January 1st 1900, 00:00 – December 31st 1909, 23:59
  • Attributes
  • Hindumaleindian
  • Related Websites
  • http://www.myowninformations.com/2011/02/biography-of-swami-vivekananda.html,http://www.archive.org/details/SwamiVivekanandaChicagoSpeech,http://www.ramakrishnavivekananda.info/vivekananda/complete_works.htmhttp://www.esnips.com/web/SwamiVivekanand1,http://www.esnips.com/web/SwamiVivekananda1,  …
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  • Rare Terms
  • “swami vividishananda”
  • Birthday
  • the 12th of January
  • Quotes
  • ▶”You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul.”; “You cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself.”; “Where can we go to find God if we cannot see Him in our own hearts and in every living being.”; “When an idea exclusively occupies the mind, it is transformed into an actual physical or mental state.”; “We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far.”;  …
  • Freebase Primary MID
  • “/m/0cdfl”
    • In College
    • At college Narendranath began to interest himself more seriously in studies. Apart from the usual college curriculum, he avidly studies western logic, the abstruse philosophy of Herbert Spencer, the systems of Kant and Schopenhauer, the mystical and analytical speculation of the Aristotelian school, the positivist philosophy of Comte, and John Stuart Mill’s Three Essays on Religion. He also mastered the ancient and modern history of Europe and the English poets like Shelley and Wordsworth. He even took a course in physiology with a view to understanding the functioning of the nervous system, the brain, and the spinal cord.
    • But this contact with western thought, which lays particular emphasis on the supremacy of reason, brought about a severe conflict in Narendranath. His inborn tendency towards spirituality and his respect for the ancient traditions and beliefs of his religion which he had imbibed from his mother, on the one side, and his argumentative nature coupled with his sharp intellect which hated superstition and questioned simple faith on the other, were now at war with each other. Under a deep spiritual urge, he was then found observing hard ascetic practices, staying in his grandmother’s house, away from his parents and other relatives, following a strict vegetarian diet, sleeping on the bare ground or on an ordinary quilt, in accordance with the strict rules of brahmacharya. From youth, two visions of life had presented themselves before him. In one, he found himself among the great ones of the earth, possessing riches, power, honour, and glory, and he felt himself capable of renouncing all worldly things, dressed in simple loin- cloth, living on alms, sleeping under a tree, and then he felt that he had the capacity to live thus like the Rishis of ancient India. It was, however, the second vision that prevailed in the end, and he used to sleep with the conviction that by renunciation alone could man attain the highest bliss.
    • In his eagerness for spiritual illumination he went to Devendranath Tagore, the leader of the Brahmo Samaj, and asked him: “Sir, have you seen God?” The old man was embarrassed by the question, and replied, “My boy, you have to eyes of a Yogi. You should practice meditation.” The youth was disappointed, but he received no better answer from the leaders of other religious sects whom he approached with the same question.
    • At this critical juncture he remembered the words of his professor, William Hastie, who, while speaking of trances in the course of his lectures, had said, “Such an experience is the result of purity of mind and concentration on some particular object, and is rare indeed, particularly in these days. I have seen only one person who has experienced that blessed state of mind, and he is Ramakrishna Paramahamsa of Dakshineswar. You can understand if you go there and see for yourself.” … now in his trouble, the young seeker decided to have yet one more try to solve his problem.
    • At the first meeting:
    • Approaching him (Sri Ramakrishna at Dakshineswar), Narendranath asked him the question which he had asked others often before: “Sir, have you seen God?” “Yes, answered Sri Ramakrishna, “I see Him just as I see you here, only I see Him in a much intenser sense. God can be realised; one can see and talk to Him as I am doing with you. But who cares to do so? People shed torrents of tears for their wife and children for wealth and property, but who does so for the sake of God? If one weeps sincerely for Him. He surely manifests Himself.”
    • This startling reply impressed Narendranath at once. For the first time he had found a man who could say that he had seen God, and recognised that religion was a reality to be felt. As he listened, he could not but believe that Sri Ramakrishna spoke from the depths of his own realisations
    • The Baranagore days
    • After the death of the Master. One of the lay disciples of Shri Ramakrishna offered to contribute towards the maintenance of a monastery where the young disciples of the Master could stay and continue their spiritual and devotional exercises, and where the householder disciples might now and then go for peace and solace. Accordingly, an old dilapidated house was rented at the Baranagore, and two of the monastic disciples went to live there. Narendranath who was busy conducting a law suit pending at the court, used to spend the night at the monastery. He exhorted the others to join the brotherhood.

At Baranagore – after the passing away of the Master

  • Lest this devotion should become dammed up within the narrow limits of a creed or cult, the leader forced them to study the thought of the world outside. He himself instructed them in western and eastern philosophy, comparative religion, theology, history, sociology, literature, art, and science. He read out to them the great books of human thought, explained to them the evolution of the universal mind, discussed with them the problems of religion and philosophy, and led them indefatigably towards the wide horizons of the boundless truth which surpassed all limits of schools and races, and embraced and unified all particulars truths. In the light of the teachings of Shri Ramakrishna, he reconciled the apparent contradictions between the various systems.
  • The wandering monk

The wandering – nameless monk – befriending princes and commoners

  • Between the closing of 1888, when Narendranath first left on his temporary excursions, and the year 1891, when he parted from his brethren alone and as an unknown beggar, “to be swallowed up in the immensity of India”, there came over him a remarkable change in outlook. When he first left in 1888, it was mainly to fulfill the natural desire of an Indian monk for a life of solitude. But when he left the monastery in 1891, it was to fulfill a great destiny. By then he had realized that his was not to be the life of an ordinary recluse struggling for personal salvation. Many times he had tried it: he had entered the deepest of Himalayan forests to lose himself in the silent meditation of the absolute. Every time he had failed. Something or other brought him back from the depths of meditation to the midst of the suffering masses, beset with a thousand and one miseries. The sickness of a brother monk, or the death of a devotee, or the poverty at the Baranagore monastery, was enough to disturb him. More than all, the fever of the age, the misery of the time, and the mute appeal issuing from the millions in oppressed and downtrodden Indian pained his heart.

Seeking answers for India 
and the world

  • He lived in anguish during that period, in a seething cauldron as it were, and carried within himself a soul on fire whose embers took years to cool down. As he moved from place to place in the north, and later on in the south, studying closely the life of the people in all strata of society, he was deeply moved. He wept to see the stagnant life of the Indian masses crushed down by ignorance and poverty, and the spell of materialistic ideas among the educated who blindly imitated the glamour of the West but who never felt that they were the cause of India’s degeneration and downfall. Spirituality was at a low discount in the very land of its birth. The picture of ancient India, once the envy of the world, came before his eyes vividly in all its grandeur and glory. The contrast was unbearable. Things should not be allowed to drift in this way. He visualized that India must become dynamic in all spheres of human activity and effect the spiritual conquest of the world, and he felt that he was the instrument chosen by the Lord to do it.
    • On the occasion of America’s Bicentennial Celebration in 1976, the National Portrait Gallery in Washington D.C., mounted a large portrait of Swami Vivekananda as part of its exhibition “Abroad in America: Visitors to the New Nation,” which paid tribute to the great personalities who visited America from abroad and made a deep impression on the American mind. Among those honored in the exhibition, some influenced art or literature, some science, education or social reform. But Swami Vivekananda touched the very soul of American people. The commemorative volume of the exhibition says: “The Swami charmed the audiences with his magical oratory, and left an indelible mark on America’s spiritual development.” This is no exaggeration. Swami Vivekananda was the first Hindu monk from India ever to visit America. Guided solely by the will of Providence, he embarked on this journey to the new world. The unknown wandering monk, lost in the streets of Chicago, suddenly became famous after his first day’s brief address before the Parliament. A select audience of nearly 7,000 enlightened representatives of different branches of American thought became thrilled to hear his message and welcomed him with sustained and thunderous applause. He captured the hearts of the American people. Crowds gathered in the streets of Chicago to see the picture posters of Swami Vivekananda placed on billboards around the city, and lecture bureaus vied with one another to enlist him for lectures in different cities. Leading newspapers and journals published his words in bold letters. Some of these newspapers described him as the “cyclonic Hindu,” some as “prince among men” or “Brahmin monk,” while others chose to designate him by such epithets as “warrior prophet” and “militant mystic.” Contemporary leaders of American thought who met him were entranced by the radiance of his spiritual personality and his powerful message. Professor John Henry Wright of Harvard University told Swami Vivekananda: “To ask you, Swami, for your credentials is like asking the sun about its right to shine.” After hearing Swami Vivekananda, the correspondent of one journal wrote: “The impertinence of sending half-educated theological students to instruct the wise and erudite Orientals was never brought home to an English-speaking audience more forcibly.” Professor William James referred to Swami Vivekananda as “the paragon of Vedantists.” The Parliament of Religions, which was an afterthought of the planners of the Columbian Exposition, became a focus of historic importance because it served as a pulpit for the presentation of the message of Swami Vivekananda to the American public. Recalling this event, Romain Rolland wrote: “His strength and beauty, the grace and dignity of his bearing, the dark light of his eyes, his imposing appearance, and from the moment he began to speak, the splendid music of his rich deep voice enthralled the vast audience…. The thought of this warrior prophet of India left a deep mark upon the United States.” America thus had the blessing of directly hearing a person of the stature of Buddha, radiating purity, compassion, and love.
    • The message of Swami Vivekananda was the message of Vedanta — a spiritual teaching that again and again saved India during periods of decline and crisis. The keynote of this message is: “Truth is one: Sages call it by various names.” Its four cardinal points are non-duality of the Godhead, divinity of the soul, oneness of existence, and harmony of religions. Religion, in the light of Vedanta, is the manifestation of the divinity already in man. The central theme of Vedanta is harmony of religions. This spiritual harmony is to be realized by deepening our spiritual consciousness. Vedanta asks a Christian to be a true Christian, a Hindu a true Hindu, a Buddhist a true Buddhist, a Jew a true Jew, Moslem a true Moslem. The message was timely and powerful. America had received a rude shock from the Civil War and its aftermath. Science had already shaken the very roots of religious beliefs and dogmas, and the ideas of Darwin were challenging conventional American thought and religion. Americans were looking for a philosophy that could harmonize science with humanism and mystical experience, and Swami Vivekananda’s words gave them hope for the fulfillment of their spiritual aspirations. The message was powerful not because of its dialectical superiority or philosophical subtlety, but because of the personality of Swami Vivekananda. The message was an ancient one, but it bore a fire of conviction that was new. One familiar with the life of Swami Vivekananda will recall that his Master, Sri Ramakrishna, saw in him the power and potentiality of a great world teacher. Before the Master passed away, he prophesied: “Narendra (Swami Vivekananda) will teach others ….. Very soon he will shake the world by his intellectual and spiritual powers.”
    • The news of Swami Vivekananda’s success in America soon reached the shores of India and spread like wildfire. The country, lost in the slumber of inertia, woke up with its new vigor and confidence, and a spiritual renaissance was set into motion that would propel India to great intellectual and social development. Today Swami Vivekananda is regarded as the “patriot prophet” of new India. His words carry the power of inspiration and transformation.
    • Swami Vivekananda indicated Vedanta is the future religion of mankind. With his prophetic vision, he predicted that modern science and education would break down the barriers between nations and prepare the ground for the fulfillment of the age-old dream of one united world. But one world is possible only when there is one common Soul that transcends the limitations of race, culture, and religious denominations. Swami Vivekananda presents before humanity the World-Soul of Vedanta, the non-dual, nameless and formless all-pervading Pure Spirit that alone can make the dream of one world a reality. He foresaw a new world order in which science and religion would cooperate, mysticism would combine with humanism and spiritual harmony would replace religious dissension. His final words at the Chicago Parliament of Religions were, “Upon the banner of every religion will soon be written in spite of resistance ‘Help and not Fight,’ ‘Assimilation and not Destruction,’ ‘Harmony and Peace and not Dissension.'” At a time when world peace is being maintained by continuous wars, divisiveness is glorified at the expense of unity, and the human soul is being buried beneath the debris of brutality, violence and hatred, the words of Swami Vivekananda give us assurance — an assurance that we are not living the last days of our destiny and that the light of the Divine, shining in every heart, will triumph over the forces of darkness.

 

CLASS IX ( SOLUTION OF BIOLOGY PART) FA3 EXAM

Section B (Biology)

Q5. Write the name of largest phylum of Animalia kingdom.

Ans. Arthropoda

Q6. Which group of plants is known as “Amphibians of Plantae kingdom” and why?

Ans. Bryophyta, because members of this group live on land as well as in water.

 

Q7. What is the concept of Binomial Nomenclature? Explain and write the rules also.

Ans. Scientific naming of living organisms is known as Binomial Nomenclature. It was given by    Carolous Linnaeus.

Rules: 1. Each scientific name has two epithets, each of them should be underlined separately.

2. Each scientific name should be in ITALICS if printed.

3. First name should be started with Capital letter and Second name should be started

with small letter.

 

Q8.

A. Write the name of kingdom in which bacteria are kept in five kingdom system. Give one example of this kingdom.

Ans. Monera; Mycoplasma

 

B. Write the name of group of plants with naked seeds. Give one example of this group.

Ans. Gymnosperms; Cycas,Pinus etc.

C. Write the names of two scientists who proposed five kingdom system.

Ans. Carl Woose & R H Whittaker

 

Q9. Write the name of phylum of following animals:                                                                                        4

i)Starfish – ECHINODERMATA

ii) Bat –  MAMMALIA OF VERTEBRATA

iii) Hydra – COELENTRATA

iv) Unio- MOLLUSCA

v) Earthworm    – ANNELIDA

vi) Cockroach     – ARTHROPODA

vii) Balanoglossus – PROTOCHORDATA

viii) Sycon – PORIFERA

 

Class IX Science FA 3

Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sikar

Formative Assessment-3

Class IX

MM: 40                                                                                                                                                                Time duration: 90 mins

Section A (Chemistry)

Q1. Calculate the molecular mass of the following Substance :                                                          6X1/2=3

i)  HNO3                                ii) S8                                       iii) K2CO3

iv) C2H5OH                           v) CaCo3                               vi) Al(OH)3

Q2. Write the chemical formula of the following substances :                                                           6X1/2=3

i) Aluminium oxide                          ii) Calcium hydroxide

iii)  Ammonium Sulphate              iv) Ferric chloride

v) Sodium Sulphite                          vi) Zinc Phosphate

Q3. Convert the following masses into moles :

i) 64 gm of Oxygen gas                   ii) 20 gm of water

iii) 34 gm of Ammonia                                    iv) 22 gm of Carbon dioxide

v) 120 gm of Calcium                                       vi) 52 gm of Helium

Q4. Calculate the number of aluminium ions present in 0.05 gm alluminium oxide.

 

Section B (Biology)

Q5. Write the name of largest phylum of Animalia kingdom.                        1

Q6. Which group of plants is known as “Amphibians of Plantae kingdom” and why?                         1+1

Q7. What is the concept of Binomial Nomenclature? Explain and write the rules also.                      1+2

Q8. A. Write the name of kingdom in which bacteria are kept in five kingdom system. Give one example of this kingdom.                                                                                                                                                                                1

B. Write the name of group of plants with naked seeds. Give one example of this group.      1

C. Write the names of two scientists who proposed five kingdom system.                                    1

Q9. Write the name of phylum of following animals:                                                                                        4

i)Starfish                             ii) Bat                     iii) Hydra                                              iv) Unio

v) Earthworm                    vi) Cockroach     vii) Balanoglossus                             viii) Sycon

 

Section C (Physics)

Q10. A lift carries five persons with an average mass of 60 kg to a height of 27 m in 9 secs at a constant speed. What is the power of the lift.                                                                                                                              2

Q11. What is the commercial unit of the energy?                                                                                              1

Q12. A ball of mass 200 gm is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 20 m/sec. Calculate its P.E. after 2 secs. (Take g=9.8 m/s2).                                                                                                                                       2

Q13. Define work. What is the work done on a body moving in a circular path? What is the SI unit of work? Define it.                                                                                                                                                                       3

Q14. State law of conservation energy. Prove that the mechanical energy is always constant for a freely falling body.                                                                                                                                                                      3

Q15. Answer in one word or sentence :                                                                                                                 3

  1. Name the physical quantity that defines the rate of doing work.
  2. What is the work done by the moon in rotating around the earth.
  3. Is power a scalar or vector quantity?

. What is the commercial unit of the energy?                                                                                              1

Q12. A ball of mass 200 gm is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 20 m/sec. Calculate its P.E. after 2 secs. (Take g=9.8 m/s2).                                                                                                                                       2

Q13. Define work. What is the work done on a body moving in a circular path? What is the SI unit of work? Define it.                                                                                                                                                                       3

Q14. State law of conservation energy. Prove that the mechanical energy is always constant for a freely falling body.                                                                                                                                                                      3

Q15. Answer in one word or sentence :                                                                                                                 3

  1. Name the physical quantity that defines the rate of doing work.
  2. What is the work done by the moon in rotating around the earth.
  3. Is power a scalar or vector quantity?