syllabusSCIENCE

(Code No. 086 / 090)
The subject of science plays an important role in developing in children well-defined abilities in cognitive,
affective and psychomotor domains. It augments the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity and asthetic sensibility.
Whereas the upper primary stage demands that plentiful opportunities should be provided to the students to engage
them with the processes of science like observing, recording observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs etc.,
the secondary stage expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the teaching
and learning of science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building blocks of matter makes its appearance,
as does Newton’s law of gravitation.
The present syllabus has been designed around six broad themes viz. Food, Materials, The World of The Living,
How Things Work, Moving Things, People and Ideas, Natural Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care
has been taken to avoid temptation of adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time
frame. No attempt has been made to be comprehensive.
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry and Biology begin to
emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject.

General Instructions :
1. The units specified for each term shall be assessed through both Formative and Summative assessments.
2. In each term, there will be two formative assessments each carrying 10% weightage.
3. The summative assessment in each term will carry 30% weightage.
4. One Formative assessment carrying 10% weightage in each term would be based completely on hands on
practicals.
5. Assessment of Practical Skills through MCQ will carry 20% weightage of term marks in each Summative Assessment.
COURSE STRUCTURE
CLASS IX
First Term Marks : 90

Units Marks
I. Food 13
II. Matter – Its Nature and Behaviour 29
III. Organisation in Living World 18
IV. Motion, Force and Work 30
Total 90
Theme : Food (10 Periods)
Unit : Food
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; use of fertilizers, manures; protection
from pests and diseases; organic farming.
Theme : Materials (22 Periods)
Unit : Matter – Nature and behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption
of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and
suspensions.
Theme: The World of The Living (22 Periods)
Unit: Organization in the living world.
Cell – Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell
membrane and cell wall, cell organelles; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus;
nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure, number.
TISSUES, Organs, Organ System, Organism
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in
plants).
Theme : Moving Things, People and Ideas (36 Periods)
Unit : Motion, force and work
Motion : Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration,
distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by
graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws: Force and motion, Newton’s laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass,
momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.
Gravitation : Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to
gravity; mass and weight; free fall.
PRACTICALS
Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
List of Experiments
1. To test (a) the presence of starch in the given food sample (b) the presence of the adulterant metanil yellow in
dal.123
2. To prepare
a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
c) a colloidal of starch in water and egg albumin in water and distinguish between these on the basis of
z transparency
z filtration criterion
z stability
3. To prepare
a) a mixture
b) a compound
using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguish between these on the basis of:
i. appearance i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
ii. behaviour towards a magnet
iii. behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent.
iv. effect of heat.
4. To carry out the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes.
a. Iron with copper sulphate solution in water.
b. Burning of magnesium in air.
c. Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
d. Heating of copper sulphate
e. Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water.
5. To prepare stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel and (b) human cheek cells and to record observations
and draw their labeled diagrams.
6. To identify parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals,
from prepared slides and to draw their labeled diagrams.
7. To separate the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium chloride (or camphor) by
sublimation.
8. To determine the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.
9. To establish relationship between weight of a rectangular wooden block lying on a horizontal table and the
minimum force required to just move it using a spring balance.
10. To determine the mass percentage of water imbibed by raisins.
COURSE STRUCTURE
CLASS IX
Second Term Marks : 90
Units Marks
I. Matter – Its Nature and Behaviour 17
II. Organisation in the Living World 25
III. Motion, Force and Work 36
IV Our Environment 12
Total 90
Theme : Materials (28 Periods)
Unit : Matter – Nature and Behaviour
Particle nature, basic units : atoms and molecules. Law of constant proportions. Atomic and molecular masses.
Mole Concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers. Valency. Chemical formula of common
compounds.
Structure of atom : Electrons, protons and neutrons; Isotopes and isobars.
Theme : The World of The Living (23 Periods)
Unit : Organization in the living World.
Biological Diversity : Diversity of plants and animals – basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification.
Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta,
Pteridophyta, gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto
phyla and chordates upto classes).
Health and Diseases : Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation.
Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and
prevention. Pulse polio programmes.
Theme : Moving Things, People and Ideas (24 Periods)
Unit : Motion, Force and Work
Floatation : Thrust and pressure. Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy, elementary idea of relative density.
Work, energy and power : Work done by a force, energy, power; kinetic and potential energy; law of conservation
of energy.
Sound : Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound;
reflection of sound; echo and SONAR.
Structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only).
Theme : Natural Resources (15 Periods)
Unit : Our environment
Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil.
Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains
across India.
Air, water and soil pollution ( brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature : Water, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen
PRACTICALS
Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
SECOND TERM
1. To verify laws of reflection of sound.
2. To determine the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder.
3. To establish the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in
a. tap water
b. strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids.
4. To observe and compare the pressure exerted by a solid iron cuboid on fine sand/ wheat flour while resting on
its three different faces and to calculate the pressure exerted in the three different cases.
5. To determine the velocity of a pulse propagated through a stretched string/slinky.
6. To study the characteristic of spirogyra/Agaricus, Moss/Fern, Pinus ( either with male or female cone) and an
Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two identifying features of groups they belong to.
7. To observe and draw the given specimens-earthworm, cockroach, bony fish and bird. For each specimen
record
a. one specific feature of its phylum.
b. one adaptive feature with reference to its habitat.
8. To verify the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
9. To study the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants.
10. To study the life cycle of mosquito.
COURSE STRUCTURE
CLASS X
First Term Marks : 90
Units Marks
I. Chemical Substances 33
II. World of Living 21
III. Effects of Current 29
IV Natural Resources 07
Total 90
Theme : Materials (30 Periods)
Unit : Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Chemical reactions : Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation,
types of chemical reactions : combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation,
neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts : Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples
and uses, concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life;
preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and non metals : Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic
compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention.
Theme : The World of The Living (20 Periods)
Unit : World of Living
Life processes : “living being”. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants : Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones;
control and co-ordination in animals : nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination:
animal hormones.
Theme : How things work. (32 Periods)
Unit : Effects of Current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the
resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications
in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between
P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to
current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electromagnetic
induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating
current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Theme : Natural Resources (08 periods)
Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels,
solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources.
PRACTICALS
Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
FIRST TERM
1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator.
a. Dilute Hydrochloric acid
b. Dilute NaOH solution
c. Dilute ethanoic acid solution
d. Lemon juice
e. Water
f. Dilute sodium bicarbonate solution.
2. To study the properties of acids and bases HCl & NaOH by their reaction with
a. Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
b. Zinc metal
c. Solid sodium carbonate
3. To perform and observe the following reactions and classify them into:
i. Combination reaction
ii. Decomposition reaction
iii. Displacement reaction
iv. Double displacement reaction
1) Action of water on quick lime.
2) Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals.
3) Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution.
4) Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions.128
4. a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions.
a. ZnSO4 (aq)
b. FeSO4 (aq)
c. CuSO4 (aq)
d. Al2(SO4)3(aq)
b) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
5. To study the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and
determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I.
6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series.
7 To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel.
8 To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
9 To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
10 To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
SECOND TERM
CLASS X
Second Term Marks : 90
Units Marks
I. Chemical Substances -Nature and Behaviour 23
II. World of Living 30
III. Natural Phenomena 29
IV Natural Resources 08
Total 90
Theme : Materials (25 Periods)
Unit : Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Carbon compounds : Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series
Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes
and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of
carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only
properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements : Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties,
valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.129
Theme : The World of The Living (30 Periods)
Unit : World of Living
Reproduction : Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods
of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heridity and evolution : Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief
introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Theme : Natural Phenomena (23 Periods)
Unit : Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis,
principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required),
Magnification. Power of a lens; Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications
of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Theme : Natural Resources (12 Periods)
Unit : Conservation of natural resources
Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal
and petroleum conservation. Examples of People’s participation for conservation of natural resources.
The Regional environment : Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability
of natural resources.
Our environment : Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions.
Biodegradable and non-biodegradable, substances.
PRACTICALS
Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
SECOND TERM
1. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :
i) odour
ii) solubility in water
iii) effect on litmus
iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate130
2. To study saponification reaction for preparation of soap.
3. To study the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
4. To determine the focal length of
i. Concave mirror
ii. Convex lens
by obtaining the image of a distant object.
5. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence.
Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
6. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.
7. To trace the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
8. To find the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and draw corresponding ray
diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
9. To study homology and analogy with the help of preserved / available specimens of either animals or plants.
10. To identify the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed ( Pea, gram or red kidney bean).
RECOMMENDED BOOKS :
Science – Textbook for class IX – NCERT Publication
Science – Textbook for class X – NCERT Publication
Assessment of Practical Skills in Science – Class IX – CBSE Publication
Assessment of Practical Skills in Science – Class X – CBSE Publication
Laboratory Manual Science – Class IX , NCERT Publication
Laboratory Manual Science – Class X, NCERT Publication

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