Science Project: Food Adulteration
1. To protect the public from poisonous and harmful foods
2. To prevent the sale of substandard foods
3. To protect the interests of the consumers by eliminating fraudulent practices
Meaning of Adulterant: Any material which is or could be employed for the purposes of adulteration
Definition of Food: any article used as food or drink for human consumption other than drugs and water and includes
a. Any article which ordinarily enters into or is used in the composition or preparation of human food
b. Any flavouring matter or condiments and
c. Any other article which the Central Government may having regard to its use, nature, substance or quality, declare, by notification in the official gazette as food for the purpose of this Act.
B Concept of Adulteration:-
An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated:
If the article sold by vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser
If the article contains any other substance which affects the substance or quality thereof.
If any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article so as to affect the nature, substance or quality of the product
If any constituent of the article has been wholly or in part extracted to affect the quality thereof
If the article has been prepared, packed or kept under unsanitary conditions where by it has become contaminated or injurious to health
If the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy, putrefied, rotten decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or is insect-infested or is otherwise unfit for human consumption
If the article is obtained from a diseased animal
If the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders it injurious to health
If the container of the article is composed, whether, wholly or in part of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders sits contents injurious to health
If any colouring matter other than that prescribed in respect thereof is present in the article or if the amounts of the prescribed colouring matter which is present in the article are not within the prescribed limits
If the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted preservative in excess of the prescribed limits
If the quality or purity of the Article falls below the prescribed limits of variability which renders it injurious to health
If the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard or its constituents are present in quantities not within the prescribed limits of variability which renders it injurious to health
Tests for food Adulterration:
COFFEE POWDER: Scorched Persimmon stones (adulterant)
Chemical test: Take 1 teaspoon of the coffee powder and spread it on a moisturized blotting paper. Pour 3 ml of 2% Aqueous Solution of Sodium Carbonate slowly and carefully on it. A red coloration indicates the presence of the powder of Scorched Persimmon Stones in the Coffee Powder.
DRY RED CHILLI: Rhodamine B colour (adulterant)
Chemical test: Take a red chilly for the dry red chilly, and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in Liquid Paraffin. If the cotton becomes red, the sample is adulterated.
TURMERIC POWDER: Metanil Yellow colour (Turmeric root is required)
Chemical test: Take a cotton piece soaked in Liquid Paraffin, and rub the dry piece of turmeric root. If the cotton becomes yellow, we can say that the turmeric root has been adulterated with Metanil Yellow colour.
JAGGERY: Sodium Bicarbonate
Chemical test: Take 1/4th of a teaspoon of the jaggery in a test tube. Add 3 ml of Muratic Acid. The presence of Sodium Carbonate effects effervescence.
JAGGERY: Metanil Yellow Colour
Chemical test: Take 1/4th of a teaspoon of the jaggery in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol and shake the tube vigorously to mix up the contents. Pour 10 drops of Hydrochloric Acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the presence of Metanil Yellow Colour in Jaggery.
MILK: Sodium Bicarbonate
Chemical test: Take 3 ml of the milk in a test tube. Add 10 drops of rosalic acid solution. The rosy colouration indicates the presence of sodium bicarbonate in the milk.
Test:on a marbel peice put a drop of milk with water and another drop of milk without water (for comparison).Keep the marble in a slanted position, the milk containing water moves downward faster as compared to milk with water.
SWEET POTATO: Rhodamine B colour
Chemical test: Take a cotton piece soaked in Liquid Paraffin, and rub the outer red surface of the sweet potato. If the cotton absorbs colour, it indicates the use of Rhodamine B colour on outer surface of the sweet potato.
TURMERIC POWDER: Metanil Yellow colour
Chemical test: Take 1/4th of teaspoon of Turmeric Powder in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol in it. Shake the tube thoroughly to mix up the contents. Add 10 drops of Muratic Acid or Hydrochloric Acid in the test tube. A pink colouration indicates the presence of Metanil Yellow colour in the Turmeric Powder.